ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF RISK AND WORKLOAD ON MOTIVATION AND IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE

Eti Rusmiati, Dikdik Harjadi, Lili Karmela Fitriani

Abstract

This study aims to analyze the effect of risk and workload on employee motivation and performance, as well as analyze the influence of work motivation on employee performance. This research was conducted at El-Syifa Kuningan Hospital. The population in this study was all employees of El-Syifa Hospital. The sample consisted of 137 respondents who were taken using non-probabilty sampling techniques, namely saturated sampling. The analysis tool used in this study is Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with the help of AMOS program. The results showed that work risk has no effect on motivation or performance, workload affects the motivation and performance of employees. Work motivation affects employee performance

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ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF RISK AND WORKLOAD ON MOTIVATION AND IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE

Eti Rusmiati 1, Dikdik Hajadi2, Lili Karmela Fitriani3

¹ Master of Management Study Program, Graduate School, Kuningan University *Etielsyifa1234@gmail.com1,

Abstrac

This study aims to analyze the effect of risk and workload on employee motivation and performance, as well as analyze the influence of work motivation on employee performance. This research was conducted at El-Syifa Kuningan Hospital. The population in this study was all employees of El-Syifa Hospital. The sample consisted of 137 respondents who were taken using non-probabilty sampling techniques, namely saturated sampling. The analysis tool used in this study is Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with the help of AMOS program. The results showed that work risk has no effect on motivation or performance, workload affects the motivation and performance of employees. Work motivation affects employee performance

Keywords: Risk, Workload, Motivation, Performance

Introduction

The growth of this institution is very rapid, both managed by the government and private sector. This proves that the increasing basic needs of society to live healthy. To fulfill these needs, hospital management is needed, both in terms of management and operations. According to Muninjaya (2004), the hospital's services consist of health and administrative services. Hospitals provide health services in the form of medical services, medical support services, medical rehabilitation and care services. The treatment services are carried out through emergency installation, outpatient and inpatient'.

The determining factor of success in carrying out the vision, mission, and objectives of the company is employees. Therefore, the company must manage it well, because the performance of employees greatly affects the performance of the company. According to Mangkunegara (2017:67), "performance is the result of one's work both quality and quantity in accordance with their duties and responsibilities. Meanwhile, according toWibowo (2017:2), 'Performance also includes the progress of a job. Citing Armstrong and Baron's opinion from the book written by Wibowo:Amstrong&Baron (Wibowo, 2017:2), states that performance is the result of work with strategic objectives, customer satisfaction and economic contribution

Motivation that evokes performance in achieving the success of organizational goals as well as individual goals is called motivation. Motivation is the attitude of employees towards the work followed by responsibility for what is done to obtain the desired results. According to Wibowo (2017: 322), that motivation is the stage of the process that encourages individual behavior to achieve the goal, namely how behavior is raised, directed, maintained, shown, attentive to intensity, and sustainable

Based on larasti and Gilang research (2016) obtained the results that work motivation consisting of three variables, namely the need for achievement, afialization and power simultaneously and partially positively and significantly affect performance. The higher the motivation, the higher the performance. While the results of salawangi et al., (2018) said there is no relationship between work motivation variables and performance variables, this is because Inpatient Installation is dominated by work motivation and good performance.

Attention to occupational risks is on occupational safety and health risks (K3), It aims to provide optimal health to employees so that employee performance improves (Notoatmodjo, 2009:153). Meanwhile, according to Mangkunegara (2004: 162), in addition to the purpose to avoid work accidents also in order to increase the excitement, taste of work and work participation so as to have an impact on improving employee performance

There are more accidents while working in hospitals than any other company. The National Safety Council (NSC) in 1988 claimed that the incidence rate exceeded 40%. Frequent work accidents are needle, sprains, back pain, scratches, cuts, burns and inpeksi diseases (Permenkes No.432/Menkes/SK/IV/2007). This means that occupational safety risks need to be taken seriously so that the incidence rate is minimal. Based on work risk research, namely occupational health and safety risk (K3) conducted previously by Wibowo &Widiyanto (2019), Utami (2017), Munandar et al.(2014) and Dumondor(2017) that occupational safety and health affect employee performance. Meanwhile, dwomoh research, et al(2013), which examined the effect of work safety in Kayu Graha company, concluded that work safety has no significant effect on performance.

In addition to these incidents, employees who work in hospitals are also faced with workloads in the form of physical and non-physical work. Physical burden work is to help the patient during treatment such as helping to move places, bathing, preparing the patient's medical devices, installing sheets and others. While the workload is non-physical, employees work in turns, must have the ability to certain tasks, responsibilities and build good communication with patients and their families. Based on the results of mudayana (2012) and Iswandani (2016), that workload is not related to employee performance. While the results of research Aditiyawarman et al. (2015), workloads have a significant impact on performance.

The conclusion of the discussion above is that the performance of employees greatly affects the performance of the company. Performance is the formulation of individual functions. environment and organization (Jay lorsch and Paul Laurance in Wibowo(2017: 84). The phenomenon of performance of individuals or employees comes from workloads that require a good and thorough and timely completion. It is a burden for employees to complete it in a certain period of work.The organization is a forum for employees in carrying out the leader's policies. Leaders have an important role in motivating employees to carry out their work in accordance with the operational standards of applicable procedures. In addition, the supervisory function of the leader is very important in improving employee performance. While the work environment will have an uncertain impact on employees in the form of work risks, especially on occupational safety and health risks

LITERATURE REVIEW AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT

Performance

Successful companies have a benchmark of work results called performance. Experts define performance as the result of work or performance of work that has been done by a person in carrying out his duties and responsibilities. According to Vietzal (2005:97), that performance is defined thoroughly from what an individual earns within a specified time frame in accordance with the standards of work, targets or previously agreed goals. The same opinion was expressed by Dessler (2000: 41), that "performance is a work performance by comparing the work with the established standards". While Mangkunegara (2016:67), emphasizes more on the quality and quantity of the end of the tasks and responsibilities that have been done. Wibowo (2017: 7) suggests that performance is not only what is produced but rather how something can be produced.

The performance of these individuals affects the performance of the organization because the resources must be managed properly in order to meet the expectations of the organization. Each individual is responsible for the work, helping to describe the wishes of the work, create work guidelines for leaders and coordinate (Wibowo, 2017:43). The same opinion was expressed by Hefert in Vietzalet al.(2014: 447), that performance is a comprehensive picture of the organization for a certain period of time in managing these resources

According to Maltis and Jackson (2002), that the resources that must be managed properly one of them is human resources (HR). HR provides a role in producing a performance as follows:

a. Quantity of output

b. Output quality

c. Output period

d. Attendance level at work

e. Cooperation

From the opinion of the above experts can be concluded that performance is the result of work both the quality and quantity of individuals of their duties and responsibilities to achieve the goals of the organization

WORK MOTIVATION

According to Mangkunegara (2017: 94) the definition of work motivation is how one's behavior is influenced in order to rise up, in the direction of the workplace environment. The same was stated by Wibowo (2017: 322) that motivation is an encouragement to a series of human behavior processes on achieving goals on an ongoing basis.

According to Hasibuan (2009), mentioning that the motivation of work is to provide driving force that creates the excitement of one's work, so that they will work together, work effectively and integrated with all their efforts to achieve satisfaction. The same is claimed by Mas'ud (2004: 39), that motivation as a driver (mobilizer) is in a person to act.

Motivation as a process that causes intensity, direction, and persistence of individuals towards achieving goals. (Robbins &Judge, 2015: 127).

Siagian (2008: 67) found that motivation was built by creating a worker to get the job done efficiently and economically. According to Sedarmayanti (2016: 40), that with a strong commitment can direct behavior to achieve the goals to be achieved. Meanwhile, according to Mangkunegara (2009: 124), explained that leaders play a role in influencing subordinates to motivate so that work productively and responsily

Motivation is the process of how individual attitudes and values are directed that become a force to achieve goals. These components are the direction of behavior (work to achieve goals) and the strength of behavior (how strong an individual's efforts are in work (Viethzal et al., 2014: 607).

Motivation or commonly called "need" is the internal state of one's self that activates and directs his behavior to a particular target. Such needs according to Steers (1985:20), consist of the need for achievement, affiliation (feeling accepted), power, ability and so on. Vrooms's opinion in Steers (1985: 150), motivation is the process by which behavior is resurrected, directed and maintained over time. As seen in this definition there are three important aspects in the concept of motivation.

in this definition there are three important aspects in the concept of motivation.

First, an understanding of the energy power within individuals that "encourages" them about certain behaviors. Second, an understanding of the orientation of goals, i.e. behavior directed at specific goals. The third is the system orientation on the motivational review. The same was stated by Munandar (2001: 323)that a person is motivated by the need for

Based on the definition of work motivation can be summarized that work motivation is the encouragement to make efforts in carrying out work to achieve the goals of individuals and organizations.

WORK RISK

The Definition of Risk according to the Great Dictionary of Indonesian Language (KBBI) is an unpleasant consequence (harm, harm) of an act or action. According to Arthur J. Keown (2008:198)' Risk is the prospect of an unfavorable outcome. This concept has been measured operationally as standard or beta deviation'

Definition of Risk according to Hanafi (2006;1), 'Risk can be defined as a detrimental event. Another definition often used for investment analysis is the probability that the results obtained deviate from the expected'.

According to Emmaett J. Vaughan and Curtis M. Elliott in Darmawi (2008:19), Risk is defined as;

Risk is the chance ofloss

Risk is the possibility ofloss

Risk is uncertainty

Risk is the dispersion of actual from expectedresult

Risk is the probability of any outcome different from the oneexpected.

Another variation of the concept of risk as a concept as an aberration is the objective probability that the actual outcome of an event will differ from the expected outcome. Objective proability is intended as a relative frequency based on scientific calculations. The key in this definition is that risk is not the probability of a single event, but the probability of several outcomes that differ from the expected.

In general, risk is the chance of loss, the possibility of loss, uncertainty and deviation from the expected result. Risk can be inferred in a situation due to adverse inaccuracies. Darmawi (2008: 21), mentions that risk as a result is unfavorable, unexpected and unexpected. Thus the possibility means something uncertain. This is due to:

The longer the time distance

Limited information

Limitations of knowledge/ skills /

decision making techniques

Hospitals are a potential place for "uncertain conditions" that lead to growing risks such as occupational safety and health risks. According to Mangkunegara (2017: 161), work risk includes two things, namely safety risk and health risk which is a safe condition from loss and health problems caused by the work environment. Mangkunegara (2017: 162), said that indicators that affect the risk of natural and occupational health that allow accidents and employee health disorders are:

Working environment

a. The preparation and storage of dangerous goods is less considered safety

b. Overcrowded and overcrowded workspace

c. Disposal of waste and waste that is out of place

Air settings

a. Bad air replacement in the workspace (dirty, dusty and bad smelling workspace)

b. Unconditioned air temperature

Lighting settings

a. Improper setting and use of light sources

b. Underexposed, dimly lit workspace

Use of work equipment

a. Security of outdated or damaged work equipment

b. Good use of machines, unsecured electronic devices

Physical and mental condition of employees

a. Damage to the sensory apparatus, unstable stamina of employees

b. Unstable employee emotions, fragile employee personality, weak way of

thinking and perception ability, low work motivation, careless employee attitude, lack of care and lack of knowledge in the use of work facilities, especially work facilities that carry the risk of harm.

Workload

Workload is the management of a person's ability to carry out his work either physical ability, cognitive ability or limitations to accept the burden. the burden consists of physical and mental burdens. Examples of physical workloads are lifting, transporting, caring, pushing. While the mental workload is comparing his abilities and work with others (Manuaba, 2000).

Furthermore Suma'mur (2018: 73) adds that workload is not only a physical and mental burden but a social burden. Individuals' ability to load varies according to their capacity. The growing workload causes a person's time to work without experiencing fatigue or shorter interruptions. The same opinion was presented by Meshkati in Tarwaka (2014: 104), that workload is the difference between the capacity or capability of workers. While Gopher &Doncin (1986), defines workload as a concept arising from limited capacity in processing information

According to Munandar (2001: 383), workload is the ability of workers to complete their work in accordance with the specified time. The workload consists of quantitative and qualitative expenses. Workloads are quantitatively based on the number of jobs, while qualitative workloads are based on the abilities, skills and potentials of workers

Another definition of workload is related to the number of jobs by job title at a company which is the result of times between the volume of work and the norm of time (pemedagri,2018 and Dahnia (2010:16). Workload is a multidefined concept, so it is difficult to come to one conclusion about the exact definition, Cain (2007).

According toRobbins and Judge(2008) states that perceptions of workload can be both positive and negative. Where an individual conducts an assessment of the work concerning a number of demands of tasks or activities that require mental and physical activity that he or she must complete within a certain time, whether it has a positive or negative impact on his work

The opinion of these experts can be concluded that the workload is the amount of work that must be completed at a certain time. Workload management can have both positive and negative effects on the work, it is influenced by the ability of the individual to complete the work.

RESEARCH METHODS

The research sample was 137 people. Sampling techniques with purpose sampling with the criteria of people with a minimum age of 15 years and never consume AQUA. After the confirmation and normality test, only 147 questionnaires could be used for analysis. Analysis using SEM with the help of AMOS 21 software.

RESEARCH RESULTS

Characteristics of respondents can be seen in table 1

Table 1

Respondent's Identity

Permanent Employee Status Frekuensi Presentasi

Employee Status remain 46 34 %

contract 91 66%

gender male 63 46%

female 74 54%

Age 18-30 years old 78 57%

-40 years old 37 27%

-50 years old 16 12%

<55 years of Junior High 6 4%

education JSS 3 2%

Senior High School 43 31%

Diploma 33 24%

bachelor 51 37%

Graduate 7 5%

Training Internal 61 45%

External 76 55%

working period 0-3 Year 70 51%

-6 Year 38 28%

-10 Year 16 12%

9%

Source:data processing, 2020

The results of the affirmative test of 21 indicators are only 12 indicators that can be used in analyzing this research model. Variable Work Risk 3 indicators, Workload2 indicators, Work motivation 4 indicators and Performance 3 indicators.

Full model test results obtained the results of the full model feasibility test index value as follows (goodness fit index) is χ² = 63.461, Probability = 0.067, TLI=0.979, CFI = 0.985, GFI = 0.933, AGFI = 0.891, DF = 48, CMIN/DF = 1.322, and RMSEA = 0.049. The model has been fit so that the analysis results can be seen in figure 2:

Source : Data Processing Results, 2020

Figure 2

Full Model test results

Table 2

Hypothesis Testing

Hubungan Kausalitas Standardized

Estimate P Keterangan

Work Risk  Work Motivation ,116 ,162 Tidak Signifikan

Workloads  Work Motivation ,128 ,000 Signifikan

Work Risk  Performance ,074 ,662 Tidak Signifikan

Workloads  Performance ,087 ,013 Signifikan

Work Motivation  Performance ,105 ,000 Signifikan

Sumber : hasil Olah Data, 2020

Table 2 shows the results of the hypothesis test; probability of significance is lower than 1% for each relationship between hypothesized variables i.e. workload to work motivation and work motivation to the performance of theawan. For hypothetical test results; probability of significance lower than 5% is the workload on performance so it can be concluded that out of 5 hypotheses only 3 hypotheses supported by sample data, and 2 hypotheses rejected.

Discussion

Of the ten indicators built to explain the working motivation variables only four indicators are able to measure latent variables namely future orientation, communication, friendship and perseverance. Hypothesis 1 suggests that there is an influence of working gridko on rejected motivation with an estimated value of 0.116 with a probability value of 0.162. means that high or low work risks do not affect the performance of employees of RSU El-Syifa. The results of this study are in accordance with research conducted by Iskandar et al (2014) that the influence of work risk that is occupational safety and health risk has a greater effect on performance without through motivation. Meanwhile, the results of research by Aisyah et al(2013) and Wanodaya et al (2014) showed that occupational risk, namely occupational safety and health, has a significant influence on employee motivation. Similarly, Mangkunegara (2002: 162) stated that occupational safety and health aims to protect employees from accidents while working and increase the excitement, harmony of work and work participation, so that the motivation of work increases. Work risks can be addressed by the application of occupational safety and health, so that companies can create harmonious, dynamic and equitable industrial relations that ensure business tranquility, job tranquility and performance (Suardi, 2005)

Hypothesis 2 that is stated that there is a significant influence of workload on work motivation is acceptable, meaning that if the workload is high then the motivation of work will be high, on the contrary if the workload is low it will undermine the motivation of work. The results of the study are in line with the results of iskandar and gredi research (2012) there is a huge workload influence on motivation. While the results of azwar and siswanto research (2015), workload has no effect on work motivation. Similarly, based on the results of Mudayana research (2012) shows that there is no relationship of workload with performance due to high motivation of work.

Of the five indicators built to explain performance variables only three indicators are able to measure latent variables namely the strength of work, responsibility and cooperation. Hypothesis 3 stated that there is an influence of work risk to performance rejected with an estimated value of 0.074 with a probability value of 0.662. This means that declining or improved performance is not affected by work risks. This study is in line with dwomoh et al(2013) research that occupational safety has no effect on performance. While the results of research Wibowo and Gregous (2019), Utami (2017) and Dumondor (2017) showed that occupational risks namely Occupational Safety and health affect employee performance.

Hypothesis 4 is that there is a significant impact workloads have on acceptable performance. means the higher the workload, the higher the employee performance and vice versa if the lower the workload, the employee performance will decrease. The results are in line with several previous studies conducted by Aditiyawarman (2016), Hastutiningsih (2018), Astuti and Oki (2018), showing that workloads have a positive effect on employee performance. Meanwhile, according to the results of mudayana (2012), Iswandani (2016) and Mizola et al(2016), that workload has no effect on employee performance. Kokoroko and sanda research results (2019) that High workload rates are associated with high levels of work stress from nurses

From the results of the analysis it is known that hypothesis 5 that is presented that there is a significant influence of work motivation on performance is acceptable. means the higher the motivation of work will increase the performance, and vice versa that the lower the work motivation, the lower the performance will decrease. The results of the study are in accordance with the results of previous research conducted by Larasati &Gilang (2016), Omollo et al(2015), Azwar &Siswanto (2015), Iswandani (2016), Nabi et al(2017), Parashakti et al(2018) and Astuti &Lesmana (2018), that work motivation has a positive and significant effect on performance. Meanwhile, according to the results of salawangi et al(2018) research that there is no relationship between work motivation and performance.

IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

From the results of the data can be known that employee performance is influenced by the motivation of work and workload so that it is necessary to analyze employee workloads that are proposional to avoid decreased motivation and employee performance, provide retention / reward to employees who have performed their duties well to motivate and improve performance, improve the knowledge and work skills of employees both administrative units and service units so that kineja employees can realize the vision, mission and objectives of the company

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