Andjar Budi Wibawanti


This study explores the association between proactive work behavior (PWB), which is a mediator between employee grit and work effectiveness. Sixty-three employees of the Secretariat General and Directorates within the Directorate General of Transportation of the Indonesian Ministry of Transportation provided data for this research, which was collected through a questionnaire on a Likert scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results demonstrated that grit enhanced PWB, which in turn significantly impacted work effectiveness both directly and indirectly. It added to the process by which work effectiveness was impacted by grit. As a result, leaders have to establish the appropriate policies to support employee grit and PWB simultaneously. Therefore, additional research needs to be done in a wider range of sectors and organizations.

Full Text:



Alkaf, A., Yusliza, M.Y., Saputra, J., Muhammad, Z. (2021). A review of work effectiveness and efficiency, service quality and organisational performance literature: A mini-review approach. Proceedings of the 11th Annual International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Singapore, March 7-11, 5127-5141,

Apriyani, D. (2023). The influence of lean management on work effectiveness and efficiency and their impact on organizational performance with work environmental as moderating variables in manufacturing companies. Indonesian Interdisciplinary Journal of Sharia Economics (IIJSE), 6(1), 366-384. https://doi.org/10.31538/iijse.v6i1.2313

Boonyarit, I. (2023). Linking self-leadership to PWB: A network analysis. Cogent Business & Management, 10(1), 2163563. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2022.2163563

Cai, Z., Parker, S. K., Chen, Z., & Lam, W. (2019). How does the social context fuel the proactive fire? A multilevel review and theoretical synthesis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40, 209–230. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2347

Duckworth, A. L., Kirby, T. A., Tsukayama, E., Bernstein, H., & Ericsson, K. A. (2011). Deliberate practice spells success: Why grittier competitors triumph at the national spelling bee. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(2), 174–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550610385872

Duckworth, A.L. (2016). Grit: The power of passion and perseverance. New York: Scribner.

Farroukh, N., Canaan Messarra, L., & Yunis, M. (2023). The perception of job insecurity and organizational citizenship behavior during COVID-19: the moderating roles of positive psychological capital and grit. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 17(6), 1069-1087. https://doi.org/10.1108/JABS-05-2022-0176

Faust, L. E., & Rosendale, J.A. (2023). Using Grit and self-efficacy as Performance predictors for at-risk students in higher education. Review of Education, 11(2), e3415. https://doi.org/10.1002/rev3.3415

Febriana, A., Wahyudi, S., & Suharnomo, S. (2019). Organizational Awareness and Participative Organizational Culture: The Effect on Proactive Behavior and Team Performance. Quality – Acces to Success, 20(170), 25-31.

Febryanti, A., & Amirulmukminin, A. (2023). The effect of compensation on employee work effectiveness at the Bima Regency Tourism Office. Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen Profitability, 07(01), 88-93. https://doi.org/10.26618/profitability.v7i1.8572

Hair, J. F., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Black, W. C. (2018). Multivariate data analysis (8th ed.). India: Cengage India.

Hermita, M., Rizal, N. P. A., & Hermana, B. (2023). How social support and grit influence entrepreneurs’ innovative behavior in micro and small enterprises: The mediating role of creativity. Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Digital (MINISTAL), 2(1), 91-114. https://10.55927/ministal.v2i1.2468

Holl, A., Peters, B., & Rammer, C. (2023). Local knowledge spillovers and innovation persistence of firms. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 32(6), 826–850. https://doi.org/10.1080/10438599.2022.2036609

Lee, J. (2022). The role of grit in organizational performance during a pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 929517. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.929517

Liang, Q. (2021). Lift the grit’s veil: the literature review and prospects of grit. Psychology, 12, 580-594. doi: 10.4236/psych.2021.124036.

Mathis, R. L., Jackson, J. H., Valintine, S.R., & Meglich, P.A. (2017). Human resource management (15th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Meianto, S., Bahiramsyah, A., & Endri, E. (2022). Work effectiveness in relation with communication, workload, and work discipline. Linguistics and Culture Review, 6(S1), 134-145. https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v6nS1.1998

Mustafa, G., Glavee-Geo, R., & Rice, P. M. (2017). Teamwork orientation and personal learning: The role of individual cultural values and value congruence. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 43(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1446

Nisar, A., Butt, T. H., Abid, G., Farooqi, S., & Qazi, T. F. (2020). Impact of grit on voice behavior: Mediating role of organizational commitment. Future Business Journal, 6(1), 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43093-020-00028-7

Parker, S. K., & Collins, C. G. (2010). Taking stock: Integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviors. Journal of Management, 36, 633–662. https://doi.org/10. 1177/0149206308321554

Pratama, A.S., Sridadi, A.R., Eliyana, A., Anggraini, R.D., & Kamil, N. L. M. (2023). A systematic review of PWB: Future research recommendation. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 18(2), 136-151.

Satriadi, S., Marlinda, C., Ilyas, I., & Savitri, L. A. (2023). Working effectiveness of batu IX Subdistrict Office, Tanjungpinang East Sub-District, Tanjungpinang City. Academia Open, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.21070/acopen.8.2023.7200

Smithikrai, C. (2022). Antecedents and consequences of PWB among Thai employees. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 17(1), 43–57.

Suendarti, M., Widodo, W. & Hasbullah, H. (2020). Demonstrating the effect of grit and creativity on innovative behavior of teacher’s natural science: Mediating by self-efficacy. Journal of Xi'an University of Architecture & Technology, 12(6), 470-478.

Von Culin, K., Tsukayama, E., & Duckworth, A. L. (2014). Unpacking grit: Motivational correlates of perseverance and passion for long-term goals. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(4), 306–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 17439760.2014.898320

Wetzler, E.L., Farina, A. G., Powers, J., & Matthews, M.D. (2023). Grit and uncertainty: Grit predicts performance and West Point graduation during pandemic conditions. Military Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2023.2222631

Widodo, W. (2021). Metodologi penelitian populer dan praktis [Popular and practical research methodology. Rajawali Pers.

Widodo, W., & Chandrawaty, C. (2021). Developing lecturers’ innovative work behavior based on grit and OCB. East African Scholars Journal of Education, Humanities and Literature, 4(8), 319-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.36349/easjehl.2021.v04i08.003

Widodo, W., & Gunawan, R.M.B. (2021). Effect of grit on the teaching creativity of Indonesian teachers: The mediating role of organizational commitment and knowledge management. Cogent Education, 8(1), 2006111. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2021.2006111.


  • There are currently no refbacks.